Click here to see a collection of wartime Japanese postcards kept in Koa Kannon.



The Nanking Atrocities
WWW

The bibliography for this project is selective because a complete list of all works consulted in the preparation of the Web site would be almost twenty pages. However, as well as those actually cited, some major works are listed as Other References at the end of the list.

The following bibliography is in conformity with the fourteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style. Accordingly, no commas are used for Chinese authors.


To download the full-text with footnotes click here (no longer available).
(Please e-mail the author if you would like to download the full-text with citation)


Books and Journals

Abend, Hallett. Pacific Charter: Our Destiny in Asia. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Dorn and Company, 1943.

American Missionary Eyewitnesses to the Nanking Massacre 1937-1938. Edited by Martha L. Smalley. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale Divinity School Library, 1997.

Bernard, Henri. "Dissenting Judgment." In The Tokyo Judgment: The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE) 29 April 1946 - 12 November 1948. Edited by B. V. A. Röling and C. F. Rüter. Amsterdam: University Press Amsterdam, 1977.

Brackman, Arnold C. The Other Nuremberg: The Untold Story of the Tokyo War Crimes Trials. New York: William Morrow, 1987.

Brook, Timothy. "Introduction: Documenting the Rape of Nanking." In Documents on the Rape of Nanking. Edited by Timothy Brook. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1999.

Chushi wo Iku [Conquering the Central China]. Edited by the Public Relation Department of the China Expeditionary Army. 1939.

Daugherty, William E. "China's Official Publicity in The United States." Public Opinion Quarterly 6.1 (Spring 1942): 70-86.

Documents of the Nanking Safety Zone. Edited by Hsü Shushi. Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh, 1939.

Documents of the Rape of Nanking. Edited by Timothy Brook. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1999.

Dorn, Frank. The Sino-Japanese War 1937-41: From Marco Polo Bridge to Pearl Harbor. New York: Macmillan Publishing, 1974.

Dower, John W. Embracing the Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II. New York: W. N. Norton & Company, 1999.

Eastman, Lloyd. "Nationalist China During the Sino-Japanese War 1937-1945." In The Cambridge History of China 13. Edited by John K. Fairbank and Denis Twithchett. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Eykholt, Mark. "Aggression, Victimization, and Chinese Historiography of the Nanjing Massacre." In The Nanjing Massacre in History and Historiography. Edited by Joshua A. Fogel. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

Fogel, Joshua A. Review of The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II, by Iris Chang. Journal of Asian Studies 57.3 (August 1998): 818-819.

________. "Correspondence: How Bad Was the Nanking Massacre?" Letters to the editor. The Los Agngeles Times, 15 August 1999.

Fujioka, Nobukatsu. Jiyu Shugi Shikan to ha Nani ka: Kyokasho ga Oshienai Rekishi no Mikata [A Liberal View of History: Historical Views Textbooks Do Not Teach]. Tokyo: PHP Bunko, 1997.

________. "Nakamura Akira shi no 'Nanking Jiken Ichiman Nin Gyakusatsu Setsu' wo Hihan Suru [Critique of 'The Death Toll of Ten Thousand in the Nanjing Incident' by Mr. Akira Nakamura]." Seiron 319 (March 1999): 282-289.

Fujiwara, Akira. Nanking no Nihongun [The Japanese Army in Nanjing]. Tokyo: Otsuki Shoten, 1997.

________. "'Tokyo Saiban ni yoru Dechiage' Setsu koso ga Dechiage [The Theory of 'Fabrication at the Tokyo War Crimes Trial' Is the Real Fabrication]. In Nanking Jiken Chosa Kenkyukai [The Nanjing Incident Research Group]. Nanking Daigyakusatsu Hiteiron 13 no Uso [Thirteen lies in the Nanjing Massacre Deniers' Claims]. Tokyo: Kashiwa Shobo, 1999.

Gibney, Frank. "Editor's Introduction." In Katsuichi Honda. The Nanjing Massacre: A Japanese Journalist Confronts Japan's National Shame. Edited by Frank Gibney. Translated by Karen Sandness. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe, 1999.

Hando, Kazutoshi. "Ikiteiru Heitai no Jidai [The Age of 'Living Soldiers']." In Tatsuzo Ishikawa, Ikiteiru Heitai [Living Soldiers]. Reprint, Tokyo: Chuko Bunko, 1999.

Hanson, Haldore. "The People Behind the Chinese Guerillas." Pacific Affairs 11.3 (September 1938): 285-298.

Hata, Ikuhiko. Nanking Jiken [The Nanjing Incident]. Tokyo: Chuo Koron, 1986.

________. Showashi no Nazo wo Ou (Jo) [Chasing Down the Mysteries of Showa History (1)]. Tokyo: Bungei Shunji, 1993.

________. "Nanking Daigyakusatsu: 'Rabe Koka' o Sokutei Suru [The Nanjing Massacre: Examining the 'Rabe Effect']," Shokun 30.2 (February 1998): 80-89.

________. "The Nanking Atrocities: Facts and Fable." Japan Echo 25.4 (August 1998): Available from http://www.japanecho.co.jp/docs/html/250413.html.

Hayase, Toshiyuki. Shogun no Shinjitsu [The Truth of Shogun]. Tokyo: Kojin, 1999.

Higashinakano, Shudo (Osamichi). "Nanking Gyakusatsu" no Tettei Kensho [A Through Probe of "The Nanjing Massacre"]. Tokyo: Tendensha, 1998.

History of the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). Compliled by Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung. Revised by Kao Cing-chen, Hu Pu-yu, Liu Han-mou, Liu Ih-po and Lu Pao-ching. Taipei: Chung Wu Publishing, 1971.

Honda, Katsuichi. Nankin he no Michi [The Road to Nanjing]. Tokyo: Asahi Bunko, 1989.

________. The Nanjing Massacre: A Japanese Journalist Confronts Japan's National Shame. Translated by Karen Sandness and edited by Frank Gibney. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe, 1999.

Hsü Shuhsi. The War Conduct of the Japanese. Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh, 1938.

________. A New Digest of Japanese War Conduct. Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh, 1941.

Imai, Masatake. "Nanking Shinai no Tairyo Satsujin [Mass Murders in the City of Nanjing]." In Mokugekisha ga Kataru Showashi 5: Nichi Chu Senso [Showa History Told by Witnesses 5: Sino-Japanese War]. Tokyo: Shin Jinbutsu Ourai, 1989.

"In the Propaganda Arena (in Surveys; Professional Services)." Public Opinion Quarterly 2.3 (July 1938): 491-496.

Inoue, Hisashi. "Itai Maisou Kiroku ha Gizou Shiryo de ha Nai [The Burial Records are not fabricated evidence]." In Nanking Jiken Chosa Kenkyukai [The Nanjing Incident Research Group]. Nanking Daigyakusatsu Hiteiron 13 no Uso [Thirteen lies in the Nanjing Massacre Deniers' Claims]. Tokyo: Kashiwa Shobo, 1999.

Ishii, Itaro. Gaikokan no Issho [A Life of A Diplomat]. Quoted in Shashinshu: Nanking Daigyakusatsu [Photographs: The Nanjing Massacre]. Tokyo: Elpis Publishing, 1995.

Ishikawa, Tatsuzo. Ikiteiru Heitai [Living Soldiers]. Tokyo: Chuo Koron, 1938. Reprint Tokyo: Chuko Bunko, 1999.

Japanese Diplomatic Messages. "Red Machine" (1934-1938). No. 1257 and No. 1263, Box 1, Record Group 457. The National Archives at College Park, MD.

Jaranilla, Delfin. "Concurring Opinion." In The Tokyo Judgment: The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE) 29 April 1946 - 12 November 1948. Edited by B. V. A. Röling and C. F. Rüter. Amsterdam: University Press Amsterdam, 1977.

Kasahara, Tokushi. Nanking Nanminku no Hyakunichi [One Hundred Days in the Nanking Safety Zone]. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1995.

________. Nanking Jiken [The Nanjing Incident]. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1997.

Kawata, Fumiko. "Nanking Senryo Chokugo ni Hajimatta Ianjo Setchi [The Establishment of Consolation Houses Started Right After the Capture of Nanjing]." Kinyobi 8.9 (10 March 2000): 39-41.

Kitamura, Minoru. "'Nanking Daigyakusatsu' Kenkyu Josetsu (Jo) [An Introduction to the Research on 'The Nanjing Massacre' (1)]." Toa 388 (October 1999): 33-42.

Kusamori, Shinichi. "Fukyoka Shashin Ron: Houkoku no Shashin 2 [An Essay on Disapproved Photographs: Journalistic Photos on Japan 2]." In Mainichi Shinbun Hizou Fukyoka Shashin 2 [Stashed Photographs in Mainichi Newspaper: the Disapproved 2]. Tokyo: Mainichi Shinbun, 1999.

Lasker, Bruno and Agnes Roman. Propaganda from China and Japan: A Case Study in Propaganda Analysis. American Council, Institute of Pacific Relations, 1938.

Leo Ou-fan Lee. "Literary Trends: the Road to Revolution 1927-1949." In The Cambridge History of China 13. Edited by John K. Fairbank and Denis Twithchett. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Matsumoto, Shigeharu. Shanghai Jidai (Ge): Journalist no Kaiso [The Shanghai Age (3): A Journalist's Memoirs]. Tokyo: Chuo Koron, 1975.

Minear, Richard H. Victor's Justice: The Tokyo War Crimes Trial. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1971.

Minnie Vautrin Papers. Special Collection, Yale Divinity School Library, Record Group No. 8 and No. 11.

"Missionaries Write Home." Letter from Arthur D. Berry, The Christian Advocate (6 January 1938): 7. Quoted in Paul A. Varg. Missionaries, Chinese, and Diplomats. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1958.

Mokugekisha ga Kataru Showashi 5: Nichi Chu Senso [Showa History Told by Witnesses 5: Sino-Japanese War]. Tokyo: Shin Jinbutsu Ourai, 1989.

Nakagaki, Hideo. "Nankin Jiken no Kenshou 2 [Verification of the Nanjing Incident 2]." Gouyu (February 2000): 25-30.

Nakamura, Akira. "Nanking de Kangaeta 'Nanking Jiken' [Reflecting on 'The Nanjing Incident' in Nanjing]." Seiron 329 (January 2000): 86-96.

________. "Nanking Jiken "Nichi Chu Taiwa Ryokou" Watashi ga Nyukoku Kyohi sareta Wake [The Nanjing Incident: Reasons That My Visa Application for A Trip of 'Dialogue between Japan and China,' Was Rejected]." Seiron 333 (May 2000): 61-72.

Nanking Daigyakusatsu o Kirokushita Kogun Heishitach [Imperial Army Soldiers Who Recorded the Nanjing Massacre]. Compiled by Kenji Ono, et al. Tokyo, Otsuki Shoten, 1996.

Nanking Jiken Chosa Kenkyukai [The Nanjing Incident Research Group]. Nanking Daigyakusatsu Hiteiron 13 no Uso [Thirteen lies in the Nanjing Massacre Deniers' Claims]. Tokyo: Kashiwa Shobo, 1999.

Nanking Senshi [History of the Battle of Nanjing]. Tokyo. Kaiko, 1989.

Nanking Senshi Shiryoshu I [Historical Records of the Battle of Nanjing I]. Tokyo: Kaiko, 1989.

Nanking Senshi Shiryoshu II [Historical Records of the Battle of Nanjing II]. Tokyo: Kaiko, 1993.

National Archives and Records Service. Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East.

Okumiya, Masatake. Watashi no Mita Nanking Jiken [The Nanjing Incident That I Saw]. Tokyo: PHP Kenkyujo, 1997.

Ono, Kenji. "Gyakusatsu ka Kaihou ka: Yamada Shitai Horyo Yaku Niman no Yukue" [Massacre or Discharge? Fate of the about 20,000 Prisoners of War Captured by the Yamada Detachment]." In Nanking Jiken Chosa Kenkyukai [The Nanjing Incident Research Group]. Nanking Daigyakusatsu Hiteiron 13 no Uso [Thirteen lies in the Nanjing Massacre Deniers' Claims]. Tokyo: Kashiwa Shobo, 1999.

Pal, Radhabinod. "Judgment." In The Tokyo Judgment: The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE) 29 April 1946 - 12 November 1948. Edited by B. V. A. Röling and C. F. Rüter. Amsterdam: University Press Amsterdam, 1977.

Piccigallo, Philip R. The Japanese on Trial: Allied War Crimes Operations in the East, 1945-1951. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1979.

Rabe, John. The Good Man of Nanking: the Diaries of John Rabe. Edited by Erwin Wickert. Translated by John E. Woods. New York: Alfred A. Knope, 1998.

Röling, Bernard V. A. "Opinion." In The Tokyo Judgment: The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE) 29 April 1946 - 12 November 1948. Edited by B. V. A. Röling and C. F. Rüter. Amsterdam: University Press Amsterdam, 1977.

Selden, Joseph P. Review of Japan: A World Problem, by H. J. Timperley. The Far Eastern Quarterly 2.4 (August 1943): 389-391.

Shogen: Nanking Daigyakusatsu [Evidence: the Nanjing Massacre]. Translated by Kagami Mitsuyuki and Himeta Mitsuyoshi. Tokyo: Aoki Shoten, 1984.

Smythe, Lewis S. C. War Damage in the Nanking Area: December 1937 to March 1938. Shanghai: Shanghai Mercury Press, 1938.

Snow, Edgar. Battle for Asia. New York: Random House, 1941.

Sun Zhaiwei. "Resistance by Citizens and Soldiers of Nanjing in the Nanjing Massacre." In Nihongun ha Chugoku de Nani wo Shitaka [What the Imperial Army of Japan Did in China]. Edited and translated by Kiyoshi Inoue and Tadashi Hiroshima. Tokyo: Aki Shobo, 1994.

________. "Nanking Daigyakusatsu no Kibo wo Ronjiru [Lecture on the Scale of the Nanjing Massacre]." Speech at the Tokyo International Symposium: 60th Anniversary of the Nanjing Massacre, Tokyo, Japan, 13-14 December 1997. In Nanking Jiken wo Do Miruka: Nichi, Chu, Bei Kenkyusha ni Yoru Kensho [How to perceive the Nanjing Massacre: Verifications by Japanese, Chinese and American Researchers]. Edited by Akira Fujiwara. Tokyo: Aoki Shoten, 1998.

Sun Zhaiwei, et al. Nanjing Datsusha [The Nanjing Massacre]. Beijing, 1997. Quoted in Yang Daqing. "Convergence or Divergence? Recent Historical Writings on the Rape of Nanking." American Historical Review 104.3 (June 1999): 853.

Taiheiyou Senso Kenkyukai [The Pacific War Research Group]. "Nanking Gyakusatsu de Tairitsu suru Shougenshatachi [Conflicting eye-witness accounts of the Nanjing Massacre]." In Mokugekisha ga Kataru Showashi 5: Nichi Chu Senso [Showa History Told by Witnesses 5: Sino-Japanese War]. Tokyo: Shin Jinbutsu Ourai, 1989.

Tanaka, Masaaki. Nanking Jiken no Sokatsu: Gyakusatsu Hitei 15 no Ronkyo [The Nanjing Incident Overview: Fifteen Reasons To Deny the Massacre]. Tokyo: Kenkosha, 1987.

"The Sack of Nanking." Readers' Digest (July 1938): 28-31.

The Tokyo Judgment: The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (I.M.T.F.E.) 29 April 1946 - 12 November 1948. Edited by Röling, B. V. A. and C. F. Rüter. Amsterdam: University Press Amsterdam, 1977.

The Tokyo War Crimes Trial: Proceedings of the Tribunal / Pages 1-2,097. Edited by R. John Pritchard and Sonia Magbanua Zaide. New York: Garland Publishing, 1981.

Timperley, H. J. Japanese Terror in China. New York: Modern Age Books, 1938. Timperley, H. J. Japanese Terror in China. New York: Modern Age Books, 1938.

________. Japan: A World Problem. New York: The John Day Company, 1942.

________. "Yoshida Shoin Martyred Prophet of Japanese Expansionism." Far Eastern Quarterly 1.4 (August 1942): 337-347.

Varg, Paul A. Missionaries, Chinese, and Diplomats: The American Protestant Missionary Movement in China, 1890-1952. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1958.

"We Were In Nanking," Readers' Digest (October 1938): 41-44.

Webb, William. "Separate Opinion." In The Tokyo Judgment: The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE) 29 April 1946 - 12 November 1948. Edited by B. V. A. Röling and C. F. Rüter. Amsterdam: University Press Amsterdam, 1977.

Whiting, Allen S. China Eyes Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.

Williams, Frederick Vincent. Behind the News in China. New York: Nelson Hughes, 1938.

Wu Tien-wei. "Preface." In American Missionary Eyewitnesses to the Nanking Massacre 1937-1938. Edited by Martha L. Smalley. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale Divinity School Library, 1997.

Yang Daqing. "Convergence or Divergence? Recent Historical Writings on the Rape of Nanjing." American Historical Review 104.3 (June 1999): 842-865.

________. "Challenges of Trans-National History: historians and the Nanjing Atrocity." SAIS Review 19.2 (Summer-Fall 1999): 133-147.

Yoshida, Takashi. "A Battle Over History: The Nanjing Massacre in Japan." In The Nanjing Massacre in History and Historiography. Edited by Joshua A. Fogel. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

Yoshida, Yutaka. Tenno no Guntai to Nanking Jiken [The Emperor's Military and the Nanjing Incident]. Tokyo: Aoki Shoten, 1986.

________. "Nanking Jiken no Zenyo ga Semaru Rekishi Ninshiki [The Whole Picture of the Nanjing Incident Obliges Us to Recognize the History]." Zenei 695 (January 1998): 58-67.

________. "Honto ni Daremo ga Nanking Jiken no Koto wo Shiranakatta no darouka [Did No One Really Know about the Nanjing Incident?]." In Nanking Jiken Chosa Kenkyukai [The Nanjing Incident Research Group]. Nanking Daigyakusatsu Hiteiron 13 no Uso [Thirteen lies in the Nanjing Massacre Deniers' Claims]. Tokyo: Kashiwa Shobo, 1999.

Yoshimi, Yoshiaki. Jugun Ianfu [Comfort Women]. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1995.


Newspapers

(Following articles were obtained in many different ways. Some articles did not have either bylines or headlines. In such case, only the name of the paper and dates are listed. To know the contents of each article, please download the full-text with footnotes.)

Asahi Shinbun, 24 January 2000.

________, 25 January 2000.

"Chiang Urges China to Fight to Bitter End." Chicago Daily News, 16 December 1937.

China Youth Daily, 18 January 2000.

________, 24 January 2000.

Durdin, Tillman. "All Captives Slain." The New York Times, 18 December 1937.

________. "Japanese Atrocities Marked Fall of Nanking After Chinese Command Fled." The New York Times, 9 January 1938.

Efron, Soni. "Defender of Japan's War Past." The Los Angeles Times, 9 May 1997.

"'No Surrender' Chiang Kai-shek's Call to the Nation." The Times (London), 17 December 1937.

McDaniel, C. Yates. "Nanking Horror Described in Diary of War Reporter." Chicago Daily Tribune, 18 December 1937.

Reid, T. R. "Japan's Leader Seeks To Meet With Clinton." The Washington Post, 11 August 1993.

________. "Japan's Hata Reprimands Justice Chief: Ex-General Disputed 'Rape of Nanjing'." The Washington Post, 5 May 1994.

________. "On Japan's WWII Resolution, Right Wing Blinks and Prime Minister Wins." The Washington Post, 8 June 1995.

Renmin Ribao, 18 January 2000

"Retreat Course Changed," Chicago Daily News, 11 December 1937.

San Francisco News, 27 March 1942

Steele, A. T. "Big Guns Rake Nanking, Defense Is Abandoned." Chicago Daily News, 13 December 1937.

________. "Nanking Massacre Story: Japanese Troops Kill Thousands." Chicago Daily News, Red Streak Edition, 15 December 1937.

________. "War's Death Drama Pictured by Reporter." Chicago Daily News, 17 December 1937.

Sterngold, James. "Japan's Leader Vows Action on Political System." The New York Times, 24 August 1993.

Stokes, Dillard. A series of articles in the Washington Post on 10, 12, 13, 15, 16, 19, 20, 26, 27 of May 1942 and 2, 5, 6 of June 1942.

"Terror in Nanking." The Times (London), 18 Dec. 1937.

The Daily Yomiuri, 11 May 1994.

The New York Times, 4 January 1938.

The San Francisco Chronicle, 28 March 1942.

________, 11 May 1942.

The Straits Times, 4 February 2000.

The Times (London), 29 November 1954.

The Manchester Guardian, 29 November 1954.


Films

China Invaded. Filmed by John Magee. 11 min. 1938. Motion picture film. Collection H. National Archives at College Park, MD.

Nanking. Produced by Keiji Matsusaki. 22 min. 1938. Motion picture film. Record Group 242. National Archives at Collage Park, MD.

Nanking. Produced by Keiji Matsusaki. 56 min. 1938. Nihon Eiga Shinsha. Videocassette.

The Battle of China. Directed by Frank Capra and Anatole Litvak. 67 min. Signal Corps, 1944. Motion picture film. Record Group 111. National Archives at Collage Park, MD.


Interviews by Author

Fujiwara, Akira. Tokyo, 25 February 2000.

Hata, Ikuhiko. Tokyo, 19 February 2000.

Higashinakano, Shudo (Osamichi). Tokyo, 3 March 2000.

Itami, Myoko. Atami (Shizuoka Prefecture), 13 March 2000.

Kasahara, Tokushi. Tokyo, 4 March 2000.

Mizutani, Naoko. Tokyo, 13 February 2000.

Ono, Kenji. Iwaki (Fukushima Prefecture), 11 March 2000.

Sato, Shinju. Fujisawa (Kanagawa Prefecture), 28 February 2000.

Shao Tzuping. New York, 24 January 2000.

Smalley, Martha L. New Haven, Connecticut, 25 January 2000.

Wang Weixing. Nanjing, 30 March 2000.

Yang Daqing. Washington D.C., 21 January 2000.

Yoshida, Takashi. New York, 24 January 2000.

Yoshida, Yutaka. Tokyo, 24 February 2000.

Zhang Lianhong. Nanjing, 24 March 2000.

Zhu Chengshan. Nanjing, 24 March 2000.


Videotaped Interviews by Kenji Ono

Hayashi, Junzo (pseudonym). 26 June 1994.

Kawashima, Noriyasu (pseudonym). 21 August 1994.

Kawata, Senji (pseudonym). 12 June 1994.

Kurosu, Tadanobu (pseudonym). 4 June 1994.

Takayanagi, Shinichi (pseudonym). 11 June 1994.

Taniguchi, Toshimitsu (pseudonym). 5 June 1994.

Yamazaki, Kohei (pseudonym). 11 June 1994.


Speeches

Jiang Genfu. Speech at the Memorial Hall for Compatriot Victims of the Japanese Military's Nanjing Massacre. Nanjing, 1 April 2000.

Ni Quiping. Speech at the Memorial Hall for Compatriot Victims of the Japanese Military's Nanjing Massacre. Nanjing, 1 April 2000.


Other References

Awaya, Kentaro. Tokyo Saiban Ron [Discussion on the Tokyo War Crimes Trial]. Tokyo: Otsuki Shoten, 1989.

Azuma, Shiro. Waga Nanking Platoon: Ichi Shoushuhei no Taikenshita Nanking Daigyakusatsu [A Platoon in Nanjing: The Nanjing Massacre Experienced by a Conscripted Soldier]. Tokyo: Aoki Shoten, 1987.

Baker, Kevin. "The Rape of Nanjing." Contemporary Review 267.1556 (September 1995): 124-128.

Barnard, Christopher. Nanking Gyakusatsu ha "Okotta" Noka: Koko Rekishi Kyoukasho eno Gengogakuteki Hihan [Has the Nanjing Massacre "broken out?": Critiques of Japanese High School Textbooks in a Functional Grammar Approach]. Tokyo: Chikuma Shobou, 1998.

Bergamini, David. Japan's Imperial Conspiracy. New York: William Morrow and Company, 1971.

Buruma, Ian. The Wages of Guilt: Memories of War in Germany and Japan. New York: Farrar Strraus Giroux, 1994.

Chang, Iris. The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II. New York: Basic Books, 1997.

Dower, John W. Japan in War and Peace. New York: New Press, 1993.

Fogel, Joshua A. "The Controversy over Iris Chang's Recent Book, The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II." Sekai 667(November 1999): 252-257.

Fujiwara, Akira. Tennosei to Guntai [The Emperor System and the Military]. Tokyo: Aoki Shoten, 1978.

Gluck, Carol. "The Rape of Nanking: How 'the Nazi Buddha' Resisted the Japanese." Times Literary Supplement 4917(27 June 1997): 9-10.

Hata, Ikuhiko, Takao Sakamoto, Kazutoshi Handou, and Masayasu Hosaka eds. Showashi no Ronten [Issues in Showa History]. Tokyo: Bungei Shunju, 2000.

Higashinakano, Shudo and Nobukatsu Fujioka. "The Rape of Nanking" no Kenkyu: Chugoku ni Okeru "Jouhousen" no Teguchi to Senryaku [Inquisition of "the Rape of Nanking": Techniques and Strategies for "Propaganda War" in China]. Tokyo: Shoudensha, 1999.

Hora, Tomio, Akira Fujiwara and Katusichi Honda, et al., eds. Nanking Jiken wo Kangaeru [Probing the Nanjing Incident]. 4th ed. Tokyo: Otsuki Shoten, 1994.

Hotta, Yoshie. Jikan [Time]. Tokyo: Shinchosha, 1955. Reprint in Hotta Yoshie Zenshu 2 [The Complete Works of Yoshie Hotta 2]. Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo, 1993.

________. Shanghai Nite [In Shanghai]. Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo, 1959. Reprint, Tokyo: Chikuma Bunko, 1995.

________. Meguriaishi Hitobito [People I have met]. Tokyo: Shueisha Bunko, 1999.

Hsü Shuhsi. How the Far Eastern War Was Begun. Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh, 1938.

Itakura, Yoshiaki. Honto ha Kodatta Nanking Jiken [The Nanjing Incident: This is what actually happened]. Tokyo: Kindai Bungeisha, 1999.

Kitamura, Minoru. "'Nanking Daigyakusatsu' Kenkyu Josetsu (Chu) [An Introduction to the Researches on 'The Nanjing Massacre' (2)]." Toa 390(December 1999): 40-50.

________. "'Nanking Daigyakusatsu' Kenkyu Josetsu (Ge) [An Introduction to the Researches on 'The Nanjing Massacre' (3)]." Toa 391(January 2000): 45-56.

Kodama, Yoshio. Sugamo Diary. Translated by Taro Fukuda. Japan: Radio Press, 1960.

Kojima, Noboru. Ni-Chu Senso (3) [Sino-Japanese War (3)]. Tokyo: Bungei Shunju, 1984.

MacKinnon, Stephan. "Remembering the Nanjing Massacre: 'In the Name of the Emperor' (1995)." Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 15.3(August 1995): 431-433.

Matsumura, Toshio. "Nanking Gyakusatsu" heno Daigimon [Queries about "The Nanjing Massacre"]. Tokyo: Tendensha, 1998.

Murakami, Hyoe. Japan: The Years of Trial, 1919-52. Tokyo: Japan Cultural Institute, 1982.

Nakamura, Akira. Daitoa Senso he no Michi [En Route to the Great East Asian War]. Tokyo: Tendensha, 1990.

Nanjing Datsusha Ziliao Bianji Weiyuanhui [Committee for the Compilation of Sources on the Nanjing Massacre]. Qin-Hua Rijun Nanjing Datsusha Shiliao [Historical Materials on the Nanjing Massacre by the Japanese Troops Who Invaded China]. Nanjing: Jiangsu Guji Chubanshe, 1985.

Peattie, Mark, R. Ishiwara Kanji and Japan's Confrontation with the West. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1975.

Rabe, John. Nanking no Shinjitsu [The Truth of Nanjing: the Diary of John Rabe]. Edited by Erwin Wickert and translated by Hirano Kyouko. Tokyo: Koudansha, 1997.

Shao Tzuping. "John Magee's Documentary Footage of the Massacre in Nanjing, China, 1937-1938." Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 15.3(August 1995): 425-429.

Snow, Edgar. "The Political Battle of Asia." In Smash Hitler's International: The Strategy of a Political Offensive Against the Axis. New York: The Greystone Press, 1941.

Sugiyama, Eiji. Shanghai yori Nanking wo Tsuku: Sensen Reportage [Thrusting into Nanjing from Shanghai: Reportage on the Battle Front]. Tokyo: Showa Shobo, 1937.

Suzuki, Akira. Shin "Nanking Daigyakusatsu" no Maboroshi [Illusions of "The Nanjing Massacre," Renewed Edition]. Tokyo: Asukashinsha, 1999.

Tawara, Yoshifumi. Kyokasho Kogeki no Shinso [The Depths of Attacks on School Textbooks]. Tokyo: Gakushu no Tomo Sha, 1997.

Unemoto, Masaki. Shinso Nanking Jiken: Rabe Nikki wo Kensho shite [The Truth about the Nanjing Incident: Scrutiny of John Rabe's Diary]. Tokyo: Kenpakusha, 1998.

Yang Daqing. "Rekishika e no Chosen: 'Nanking Atrocities' o Megutte [The Nanjing Atrocities as Challenges to Historians]." Shiso 890(August 1998): 83-109.

________. "The Challenges of the Nanjing Massacre: Reflections on Historical Inquiry." In The Nanjing Massacre in History and Historiography. Edited by Joshua A. Fogel. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

Yoshida, Takashi. "Nanking Gyakusatsu wa Do Katararetekita ka: Nichi, Chu, Bei ni Okeru Hikaku Kosatsu [How has "the Nanjing Massacre" been portrayed?: Comparative Studies between Japan, China and the United States]. Senso Sekinin Kenkyu 24(Summer 1999): 29-37.


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